Friday, September 4, 2015

Primary Arithmetic Book from 1866

Primary Arithmetic by Charles Davies, LL D, author of A Full Course of Mathematics
published in New York by A. S. Barnes & Co, 
111& 113 William Street (corner of John Street) 
1866


Charles, can you count?"I'll try, Sister." Which is your right hand? Which your left? How many hand have you How many thumbs have you on your right hand? How many on your left? How many on both? How many finger have you on your right hand? How many on your left? How many on both?

This little book of beginning arithmetic belonged to my husband's mother's father, John Oran O'Dell (1873-1939). It was given to him by his Aunt.

It was based on teaching methods taught at Columbia College, New York, May 1862.

"The plan of this work requires the beginner to search out his way, by short and easy steps, to what lies before him. He is to use his faculties to discover principles and not rely on his memory for rules to guide him. Hence the Table is placed at the end of each lesson, as the result of what has preceded: and not at the beginning, as heretofore, in all similar works."


 Ten soldiers and one soldier are how many soldiers?
Two turkeys taken from 3 turkeys, leaves how many turkeys? 2 from 3 how many?

 An apple cut from a page is inserted in the book.
 


The book includes Units of Arithmetic.

The Units of Currency in United States Money in 1866 were:
10 mills make.........1 cent.....ct.
10 cents..................1 dime.....d.
10 dimes.................1 dollar...$
10 dollars...............1 eagle....E.
20 dollars...............1 double eagle...D.E.
The units of this currency are, 1 mill, 1 cent, 1 dime, 1 dollar, and 1 eagle.
$1 + 100 cents
1/2 of a dollar = 50 cents
1/4 of a dollar = 25 cents
1/5 of a dollar=20 cents
1/8 of a dollar = 12 1/2 cents
1/10 of a dollar=10 cents
1/16 of a dollar=5 cents
1/2 of a cents+ 5 mills

Units of Length included Cloth Measure:
Linear Measure.
2 1/4 inches, in, make.....1 nail....na.
4 nails.............................1 quarter of a yard, gr.
4 quarters........................1 yard...........yd.
3 quarters........................1 Ell Flemish...E. Fl.
5 quarters........................1 Ell English...E.E.

I had never heard of a mill or an eagle.Or a nail.

A nail is an archaic unit of measure that dates back to at least Shakespeare's time. The Taming of the Shrew includes mention of "thou yard, three-quarters, half-yard, quarter, nail".

In 1786 The U.S. Continental Congress established the mill and some states and local governments made mills out of tin, paper or aluminum. http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1913870_1913868_1913851,00.html

The Coinage Act of 1792 included a gold coin called the Eagle, worth $10.The Double Eagle was first minted in 1849 and was produced until 1933.
1866 Eagle 
 1866 Double Eagle